# Scientific Instruments and their usage – वैज्ञानिक उपकरण और उनका उपयोग

Physics topic – “Scientific Instruments and their usage – वैज्ञानिक उपकरण और उनका उपयोगis important for all competitive exams like SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, UPSC and other state civil services exams. In these exams, almost 4-5 questions are coming from Physics. Let’s start the topic: Scientific Instruments and their usage – वैज्ञानिक उपकरण और उनका उपयोग|

## Scientific Instruments and their usage:-

1)   Altimeter: –

The device use for measuring height of flying objects. An altimeter or an altitude  meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. The measurement of altitude is called Altimetry.

• E.g.:-   Glider, Para suit, Aircraft etc.

2)  Fathometer: –

It is device use for measuring depth of ocean. it is  a depth finder that uses sound waves to determine the depth of water.

•     Its unit is =  Fathem.
•     1 Fathem =  6 feet.

3)  Anemometer: –

This is a Device use to measure speed or velocity of the wind.

• An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed and direction.
• It is also a common weather station instrument.

4)  Periscope: –

Device used by sailor of submarine to watch out the surface moment of sea. This also used by solider setting in Bunker to observe outside activity.

• periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer’s current position.
• In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle.

5)  Chronometer: –

Device use for measuring time in ships.  Device particularly one used for determining longitude at sea.

• Its measures orderly.
• it is portable timekeeping device of great accuracy.

6)  Sextant: –

sextant is an instrument used for measuring the angle between two visible objects.

• Both horizontal and vertical angles can be measured using a sextant.
• Device use for measuring the height of the towers without touch by measuring the angle of shadow.

7)  Manometer: –

• This Device use to measure  pressure of the gas.
• Open manometers measure gas pressure relative to atmospheric pressure.
• A mercury or oil manometer measures gas pressure as the height of a fluid column of mercury or oil that the gas sample supports.
• Its  Unit = Pascal

8)  Sphygno Manometer: –

It is use to measure the Blood pressure (oxygen in blood).

•  It is composes of an inflatable rubber cuff, which is wrapped around the arm. A measuring device indicates the cuff’s pressure.

9)  Goniometer: –

This device use for measuring angle of crystal.

•  Also use for testing (purity) of the James.

10)  Odometer: –

An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance traveled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.

• Device use with speedo-meter for measuring how much distance travelled by vehicles.

11)  Tachometer: –

This device is used to measure the speed of any object (moving). A tachometer is an instrument to measure the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine.The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on dial.

•    It based upon the optical – phenomena.
•    E.g. speed of cricket ball, vehicles.

Radar Device is a system that uses radio waves to detect an object or determine the range of a detected object.

• It is use in “Air traffic controlling” system.
• It acts upon Radio waves.

13) SONAR (Sound Navigation and Ranging):-

Sonar is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water.

• This device is used in ships for detecting the submersed obstacles.
• It is based upon the reflection of the ultrasonic wave.

14) Screw Gage: –

Device use for measuring the thickness of metallic sheet, as well as thickness of metallic wires.

• It is also called as Micrometer.

15) Rain-Gage: –

The device use for measuring the amount of Raining. It is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to measure precipitation    Rain gauge is a meteorological instrument for determining the depth of precipitation  (e.g. rain, snow, hail or sleet) that occurs over a unit area (usually one metre square) in a certain amount of time.

• One millimetre of measured precipitation is the equivalent to one litre of rainfall per metre square.
• It is usually measured in millimetres (mm).

16) Hydrometer: –

This Device use for measuring a specific density of liquid. A hydrometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density of liquids based on the concept of buoyancy.

• It is used for detection of liquid adulteration.

17) Lactometer: –

This device use for measure the purity of milk, by measuring the density of milk.

• Lactometer works on the principle of the specific gravity of milk.

18) Hygrometer: –

Hygrometer use for measuring the Relative humidity of atmosphere. It  is an instrument used to measure the amount of water vapor in air, in soil, or in confined spaces.

• Hygrometer usually rely on measurements of some other quantities such as temperature, pressure, mass, a mechanical or electrical change in a substance as moisture is absorbed.

19) Seismograph: –

This device used to measure the intensity of the earthquake.

• seismograph, or seismo-meter, is an instrument used to detect and record earthquakes.
• It consists of a mass attached to a fixed base. During an earthquake, the base moves and the mass does not.

20) Audio-meter: –

Device use for measuring the “intensity of the sound”.

• An audiometer is a machine used for evaluating hearing acuity also.

21) Photo-meter: –

Photometer Device use for the measuring the “intensity of the light”.

• A photometer is an instrument that measures the strength of electromagnetic radiation in the range from ultraviolet to infrared and including the visible spectrum.
• Most photometers convert light into an electric current using a photoresistor, photodiode, or photomultiplier.

22) Interferometer: –

An interferometer device use for spread and splitting the different light.

• This is an optical device which utilizes the effect of interference

23) Crescograph/Coso-meter (Auxanometer): –

A crescograph is a device  use for measuring the growth (height) of the plant.

• It is invented by: – Jagadish Chandra Bose
• It is also Known as- Auxanometer.

24) Bolometer: –

Bolometer use for measuring “intensity of Infrared rays”.

• It is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.
• It was invented  by : Samuel Pierpont Langley.

25) Pyrometer: –

Pyrometers are the temperature measuring devices used to detect the object’s temperature and electromagnetic radiation emitted from the object.

• This device is use for measuring the “farthest and hottest” temperature of the object.
• It is mainly use  to measuring the temperature of Sun and Stars.
• It was designed by: Stephen William Hawking.

26) Giger Mullar Counter:-

A Geiger Mullar Counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation. It is widely used in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

• This device is use to detecting and measuring Radio activity (Radioactive waves)
• Its use also to find out the atomic leakage.

27) Scintillation counter: –

Scintillation Counter is an instrument that is used for measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillating material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.

• The device use for detecting and measuring pressure of Gama –Rays.

28) Electron Microscope: –

In electron microscope electron beams are used. It is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

• It is use for the studying for magnifying cellular components.
• It is discovered by “Knoll and Ruska”.

29) Barometer: –

A barometer is a scientific instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure, also called barometric pressure. The atmosphere is the layers of air wrapped around the Earth. That air has a weight and presses against everything it touches as gravity pulls it to Earth. Barometers measure this pressure.

• It is use for measuring atmospheric pressure.
• It is discovered by: “Torri cell”.
• At sea level Atmospheric pressure is
• 1 bar = 1 atmo = 760 mm of Hg (mercury) =76 c.m. of Hg (mercury)
• When we go above from the sea level atmospheric pressure gradually (slowly) decrease.
• When we go down the sea level, atmospheric pressure gradually (slowly) increase.
• If reading of barometer gradually fall- down, it means raining takes places.
• If the reading of barometer “suddenly fall down” its means storm with rain” come.
• If the reading of Barometer “Rise- above” it means whether will pleasure.
• If the reading of Barometer comes “0” its means “Its dead” ( Barometer is Not working in proper way).

Scientific Instruments and their usage – वैज्ञानिक उपकरण और उनका उपयोग

30) Accumulator:-

An accumulator is an energy storage device. It is a device which accepts energy, stores energy, and releases energy as needed.

• This device used to store electrical energy.

31) Ammeter: –

An ammeter is a device used to measure the electric current in a circuit.

• Electric currents are measured in amperes (A)
• It use for measuring the strength of electric current.

32) Binoculars:-

An optical instrument used for magnified view of distant objects.

33) Cardiogram (ECG):-

This device is use to traces movements of the heart, recorded on a Cardiograph.

An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) records the electrical signal from heart to check – different heart conditions with the help of  Electrodes i.e placed on your chest to record your heart’s electrical signals.

34) Endoscope:-  This is use to examine internal parts of the body.

35 ) Cinematograph: –

Cinematograph is a motion picture film camera use for projecting pictures on the screen.

Scientific Instruments and their usage – वैज्ञानिक उपकरण और उनका उपयोग

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