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Introduction To Internet – Computer Applications.

Introduction to Internet – Computer Applications.

“Introduction to Internet”, is important topic of ‘Computer Knowledge & Applications’ for all competitive exams like CET- Common eligibility Test, SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, UPSC and other state civil services exams. In these exams, almost 4-5 questions are coming from Computer Knowledge & Applications i.e. Internet, Microsoft Window, MS Excel, MS Word etc. Let’s start the topic:

Introduction to INTERNET

What is Internet? 

The internet is the largest network in the world, connecting millions of computers. The Internet links computer networks all over the world so that users can share resources and communicate with each other.

  • A network is a group of two or more computer systems linked together. A global network connecting millions of computers, more than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions.

Types of Computer Network:-

There are three main types of computer networks:-

  1. Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is two or more connected computers sharing certain resources in a relatively small geographic location, often in the same building. Examples include home networks and office networks.
    • A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance.
    • A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings
  1. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):- A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a large computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN often acts as a high-speed network to allow sharing of regional resources.
    • A MAN typically covers an area of between 5km and 50km diameter.
    • A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations.
  2. Wide Area Network (WAN):- WAN covers a large geographic area such as country, continent or even whole of the world. 
    • A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. 
    • Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management.

How Do I Connect to the Internet?

(Internet Access):-

To gain access to the internet, the user has to register to any Internet Service Provider (ISP). Once you’ve set up your computer, you’ll probably want to get internet access so that you can access the internet, there are three things that you need: internet service, a modem, and a web browser.

Choosing an Internet Service Provider:-

Once you have decided which type of internet access you are interested in, you can determine which ISPs are available in your area that offer the type of internet access you want. Then, you will need to purchase internet service from one of the available ISPs. Below are some things that you must before to buy an ISP.

  • Speed
  • Price
  • Ease of Installation
  • Service Record
  • Technical Support
  • Contract Terms

Hardware Needed-

  1. Modem:- modem-sukrajclasses.com
    • To connect your computer with internet, the primary hardware you need is a modem. The type of internet access you choose will determine what type of modem you need.
    • Dial-up access uses a telephone modem, DSL service uses a DSL modem, cable access uses a cable modem, and satellite service uses a satellite adapter.
    • Your ISP may give you a modem (often for a fee) when you sign a contract with them, which helps to ensure that you have the right kind of modem. However, you can choose to buy one separately.
  2. Router: – ruter-internet-sukrajclasses.com
    • Router is a hardware device that allows you to connect several computers and other devices to a single internet connection, which is known as a home network.
    • Many routers are wireless, allowing you to easily create a wireless network.
    • No need to buy a router to connect to the internet. It’s possible to connect your computer directly to your modem using an Ethernet cable.
    • Many modems now include a built-in router, so you have the option of creating a network without having to buy more hardware.
    • Most routers also act as a hardware firewall, which helps prevent people from gaining access to your computer through the internet.
  3. A network card: –
    • It is a piece of hardware that allows computers to communicate over a computer network.
    • The network card will either have an Ethernet port, a wireless connection, or both.
    • If you have a laptop with a wireless connection, you can access the internet at any place that offers a Wi-Fi connection.
    • Many cities provide free Wi-Fi in public areas such as parks and downtown areas etc.
Types of Internet connection:

1.  Dial-up:- Dial Up- Internet-sukrajclasses

    • Slower than other type of connections.
    • Connects through existing phone lines using dial-up modem.
    • Cheapest.
    • Must “dial-up” to connect to Internet and disconnect when done.
    • Cannot use Internet and phone line at the same time.

2.  Digital Subscriber Line (DSL):-

    • Broadband – faster than dial-up connection.
    • Connects through phone lines, but does not require phone service.
    • Always on.
    • Internet and phone can be used in the same time.
    • Unavailable in many location.

3.  Integrated services digital network (Through Cable):-

    • Broadband – faster than dial-up and DSL.
    • Use cable connection.
    • Always on.
    • Only available where cable is available.

4.  Wireless Internet Connections:- satelite-sukrajclasses.com

      • Available for mobile phones, computers and tablets.
      • Connects wirelessly through 3G/4G/5G provider.
      • Can access Internet anywhere.
      • Slower than DSL and Cable connection.

5.  Internet over Satellite:-

    • Broadband – faster than dial-up, but data is delayed.
    • Connects via satellites.
    • Can be affected by rain and snow.
    • Does not require phone lines and cables.
    • Can be use anywhere around the world.
How Internet Works?

Because the Internet is a global network of computers each computer connected to the Internet must have a unique address. This address is known as an IP address.

how internet works

Requirements for Internet:-

  • Computer with modem/router/network card.
  • Internet account with ISP.
  • Application software:
    • Web browser (Firefox, Chrome)
    • Email client (MS Outlook)
    • Plugins software (Adobe Reader, Flash Player)

Also Read:- Shortcut Keys of Computer and Microsoft Office

Applications of Internet:-

 An Internet application is an interactive, compiled application that can be accessed through a corporate or through the Internet. Either internet applications can perform complex business processes on the client or the server. The application uses the Internet protocol to receive requests from a client, typically a Web browser, process associated code, and return data to the browser.

  • The World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Electronic Mail (E-Mail)
  • File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  • Search Engine
  • Chatting
  • Video Conferencing
  • E-Commerce

World Wide Web (WWW):-

The World Wide Web is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlink. It use a protocol called HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands.

A Uniform Resource Locator or URL is the address of a document you will find on the WWW.

  • The elements in a URL: Protocol://server’s address/filename
  • Example: http://www.google.com/index.html

Types of website:

  • Static – A static website is one that has web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  • Dynamic – A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically, based on certain criteria.

Electronic Mail (Email):-

Email is a way to send and receive digital messages and content over the internet .The transmission of messages over communications networks. It is a fast and efficient way to communicate with friends or colleagues.  You can communicate with one person at a time or thousands; you can receive and send files and other information.

  • Basic email functions:
    • send and receive mail messages
    • save your messages in a file
    • print mail messages
    • Reply to mail messages
    • attach a file to a mail message

To receive emails, you will need an email account and an email address. Also, if you want to send emails to other people, you will need to obtain their email addresses. It’s important to learn how to write email addresses correctly, because if you do not enter them exactly right, your emails will not be delivered or they might be delivered to the wrong person.

Email addresses are always written in a standard format that includes a username, @ (at) symbol and the email provider’s domain. The username is the name you choose to identify yourself and the email provider is the website that hosts your email account.

  • Email address:someone @ mail server
  • The email address has three parts:
    • User name: –   sukrajclasses
    • sign:-   (@)
    • The address of the user’s mail server: –  .com
  • Email Provider: – Gmail, Yahoo, Hotmail, Email etc.
  • Web-based mail:-
    • Is an e-mail service intended to be primarily accessed via a web browser.
    • Very popular webmail providers:
      • Gmail
      • Yahoo! Mail
      • Hotmail
    • Web mail is popular as it allows you to send or receive e-mail from anywhere

File Transfer Protocol (FTP):-

  • The protocol for exchanging files over the Internet.
  • Used for moving files between two hosts on a TCP/IP network.
  • FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server.
  • To do FTP, a user invokes one of two commands:
    •  get – the command for transferring a file from another server to your own computer.
    •  put – the command for moving a file from your computer to another one.

Search Engine:-serch engine-Internet-sukrajclasses.com

  • A search engine search for inform internet.
  • Search engine search results in search results list.
  • The search result pages, images, vid type of files.
  • Example: Google, Bing, Yahoo etc.

Chatting:-

  • Chatting is the other method for Internet conversation.
  • It enables people connected anywhere on the Internet to join in live discussions.
  • Chat sessions allow many users to join in the same free-form conversation, usually centered around a discussion topic.

Video Conferencing :-

  • A video conference is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously.
  • The other components required for a video-conferencing system include:
    • Video input and output
    • Audio input and output
    • Data transfer
    • Computer or Mobile with high speed internet connectivity. 

E-Commerce:-

  • Electronic commerce or E-commerce consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.
  • It includes the entire online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing and paying for products and services.

 Some common applications related to electronic commerce are the following:

    • Domestic and international payment systems
    • Group buying
    • Automated online assistants
    • Online shopping and order tracking
    • Online banking
    • Shopping cart software
    • Electronic tickets

Use of Internet:-  

  • In the fields of Communication
  • To Send and receive emails
  • To Download files
  • To Post your opinion on social media.
  • For Chatting
  • Online Shopping
  • For Entertainment

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