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Introduction To Biology (जीवविज्ञान-परिचय)

Introduction to Biology (जीवविज्ञान-परिचय)

Biology 1st topic – “Introduction to Biology (जीव- विज्ञान परिचय)”, is important for all competitive exams like SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB-NTPC, UPSC and other state civil services exams. In these exams, almost 4-5 questions are coming from Biology. Let’s start the topic – Introduction to Biology (जीवविज्ञान-परिचय).

Introduction to Biology


Biology word firstly used by Lamarck and Treviranus in 1801. Biology word taken from Greek language.

There are three major branches of biology –

    I.        Botany

  II.        Zoology

III.        Microbiology.

1.  Botany (वनस्पति विज्ञान) is the branch of biology which deals with the study of different aspects of plants. It includes the study of their structure, how they grow, how they can be effectively classified, the things that impact their development, etc.

  • Theophrastus (थियोंफ्रस्तुस) is known as the father of Botany and Ecology.
  • Theophrastus wrote a book on Botany named: The Historia of Planetarium (it includes more than 500 scientific name of plants)

2.  Zoology (प्राणि विज्ञान) is the branch of biology connected with the study of different aspects of animals. It includes the study of their shapes and sizes of all the tiny insects to large mammals. Zoologists investigate what animals eat and how they live, and how animals interact with their habitats.

  • Aristotle (अरस्तू): is known as the Father of Biology and Zoology.
  • Aristotle write a book on zoology named: The Historia of Anamellia. (द हिस्टोरिया ऑफ एनामेलिया). In it, he gives scientific name of more than 500 Animals.

3. Microbiology (कीटाणु-विज्ञान) is the microscopic study of microorganisms that are too small to be visible with the naked eye. These microorganisms includes bacteria, fungi, viruses, algae & protozoa collectively known as ‘microbes‘. A microbiologist study microbes. These microbes play key roles in many process like: – Nutrient cycling, Bio-degradation, Climate change, Food spoilage, the cause and control of disease & Biotechnology.

Life process in human life:

Introduction to Biology (जीव- विज्ञान परिचय)

There are six life processes that all living organisms perform.

1)    Nutrition (पोषण):  It is the process of having food as every living organism needs some kind of energy and nutrient materials to ensure that the life processes go on smoothly. Moreover, this energy requirement is got from the food.

2)    Respiration (श्वसन):  It is the process of movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells of body.

3)    Excretion (मलत्याग):  Excretion is a process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

4)    Growth (विकास):  It is a process of development and gradual increase in size and stage of life.

5)    Movement (चलन): It is the process of moving and especially changing place or position.

6)    Reproduction (प्रजनन): It is the process by which plants and animals give rise to offspring and their babies respectively.

But Respiration and Excretion (श्वसन और उत्सर्जन) are the most important and primary process in all six life processes.

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