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Noble Gases And Their Properties – Competitive Chemistry

Noble Gases and Their Properties – Competitive Chemistry

Competitive Chemistry topic – “Noble Gases and Their Properties”, is important for all competitive exams like CET- Common eligibility Test,  SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, UPSC and for other state civil service exams. In these exams, almost 4-5 Questions are coming from Chemistry. Let’s start the topic:

Noble Gases and Their Properties:

  • Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon are known as Inert Gases or Noble Gases.
  • These elements are all in group 18 of the periodic table
  • These are always found in the free-state but radon is not present in nature in free-State.
  • Noble gases’ outer shells are full, they are very inert and stable. This means they don’t tend to react with other elements to form compounds.
  • They are full outer shell of electrons. Helium has two electrons in its outer shell and the rest have eight electrons.
  • All of them are monoatomic, meaning each molecule is a single atom.
  • They are gases under standard conditions.
  • They are colorless and odourless.
  • Their melting and boiling points are close together giving them a very narrow liquid range.
  • In the atmosphere, argon is the most abundant noble gas but in the universe, helium is the most abundant gas.
  • The mixture of Helium and Oxygen is used for artificial breathing of Asthma patients and by sea drivers.
  • Helium is used as a pressuring agent in rockets to expel liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.
  • Neon is second lightest noble gases, only helium is lighter than neon.
  • Neon is used in a neon discharge lamp and signs for advertising purposes.
  • Neon can be liquefied and used as a cryogenic refrigerant
  • Xenon is also known as stranger gas and a combined mixture of xenon and krypton is used in high-intensity photographic ash tubes.
  • Radon is used in the preparation of an ointment for the treatment of cancer.
  • Argon is the 3rd most abundant gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • A mixture of argon and nitrogen is used in an electric bulb.
  • Krypton is used in high-efficiency miner’s cap lamps.


      • Name: Helium
      • Symbol: He
      • Atomic Number: 2
      • Atomic Weight: 4.002602 u
  • Helium is a gas at room temperature.
  • Helium is a non-toxic gas that is odourless, tasteless and colorless.
  • Helium is named after Helios, the Greek Titan of the Sun.
  • Helium is the 2nd lightest element on the periodic table and Lightest among all the inert gases.
  • Helium is the 2nd most abundant element found in the universe, but it considered rare on Earth.
  • While helium is abundant throughout the universe, Most of the helium found on Earth was formed from radioactive decay.
  • Helium is in the noble gas group (18) on the periodic table.
  • Helium has two stable isotopes: Helium-3 (3H) and Helium-4 (4H).
  • Helium is filled in ‘Tyres of aeroplane’ due to its non- combustion nature.
  • Helium is filled in the oxygen cylinder of scuba-driver.
  • Helium is also filled in oxygen-cylinder of asthmatic patients.

Fact: – In general oxygen cylinder which use in hospitals etc. nitrogen gas is mixed with oxygen (pure oxygen may be blast, in human body).

Use of Helium Gas:-

  • Helium gas used in tourist balloons, because helium is lighter than air, it can give things lift
  • Helium dating is a processed used to determine the age of rocks and materials.
  • It is used in cryogenic applications.

Neon : –

      • Name: Neon
      • Symbol: Ne
      • Atomic Number: 10
      • Atomic Weight: 20.179 u
  • Neon is a gas at room temperature.
  • Neon is a colorless and odourless gas.
  • Neon is in the noble gas element category on the periodic table.
  • “William Ramsay and Morris” first isolated and discovered to neon in 1898.
  • Neon has three stable isotopes and they are 20Ne, 21Ne and 22Ne.
  • Neon is the 5th most abundant element found in the universe.
  • A trace amounts of neon is present in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Neon is about two-thirds denser than air.
  • Neon is second lightest noble gases, only helium is lighter than neon.

Use of Neon gas:-

  • Neon can be liquefied and used as a cryogenic refrigerant.
  • It is used for manufacturing high-voltage indicators, television tubes, wave meter tubes switching gear, lightning arresters, diving equipment
  • The reddish-orange color emitted from the neon lights are used for advertising purposes
  • It is combined with helium to produce helium-neon lasers.


      • Name: Argon
      • Symbol: Ar
      • Atomic Number: 18
      • Atomic Weight: 39.948 u
  • Argon is a gas at room temperature.
  • Argon is a colorless, odourless, and tasteless gas.
  • Argon is a group 18 (noble gases group) chemical element. So, argon is noble gas.
  • British scientist John W. Strutt and Scottish chemist William Ramsay discovered and isolated to argon.
  • Argon has three stable isotopes: 36Ar, 38Ar and 40Ar.
  • Over 99% of the natural argon found on Earth is 40Ar.
  • Argon is the 3rd most abundant gas found in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • Argon is denser than air.
  • Argon’s density makes it a great insulator and is injected in between double pan windows.
  • Argon is added into incandescent light bulbs to protect the filament from oxidation.

Use of Argon Gas:-

  • A mixture of argon and nitrogen is used in an electric bulb
  • Argon lasers are used in the treatment of retinal detachment and retinal phototherapy for those who are diabetic
  • It is also used in surgeries to weld arteries and destroy tumours.
  • In the medical field, it is mainly use in argon laser system, as it is capable of targeting areas with extreme precision.
      • Name: Xenon
      • Symbol: Xe
      • Atomic Number: 54
      • Atomic Weight:293 u
  • Xenon is a gas at room temperature.
  • Xenon is a dense noble gas
  • Xenon is odourless and colorless. However, it does exhibit bright blue glow when placed inside an electric field.
  • Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers discovered and first isolated to xenon.
  • Xenon is in the noble gas element category on the periodic table.
  • Xenon is a group 18 chemical element, which is the noble gases group.
  • Xenon has Isotopes 124Xe, 126Xe, 128Xe, 129Xe, 130Xe, 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe and 136
  • Xenon is found in the Earth’s atmosphere at trace amount about 1 part per 11.5 million.
  • Xenon has been detected in gases emitted from some mineral springs.

Use of xenon: –

  • Xenon is used in medicine as a general anesthetic and in medical imaging.
  • It is used in Flash lamps called Xenon flash-lamps.
  • It is also used in photographic flashes.
  • It is used to measure the flow of blood and also used to image the Brain, Heart, and Lungs.
  • Also, the element is used in NMR spectroscopy
  • Xenon is also used in high pressure arc lamps for motion picture projection, and in high pressure arc lamps to produce ultraviolet light.
      • Name: Krypton
      • Symbol: Kr
      • Atomic number: 36
      • Atomic weight: 798
  • This noble gas is colourless and odourless.
  • It has a full outer shell of electrons.
  • Krypton is one of the rarest gases on Earth, composing only 1 part per million of the atmosphere by volume.

Use of Krypton gas:-

  • The gas is used into some incandescent lightbulbs.


      • Name: Radon
      • Symbol:Rn
      • Atomic number:86
      • Atomic weight: 222
  • Radon is classified as a noble gas, itis a gas at room temperature.
  • Radon is a colourless and odourless gas.
  • Radon was first detected as an emission from the radioactive decay of radium.
  • Radon is rare in nature
  • It is the densest noble gas.
  • It is highly radioactive and chemically unreactive.

Use of Radon Gas:-

  • Small amounts of radon are sometimes used by hospitals to treat some forms of cancer.
  • Radon is also used in radiation therapy.

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