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BONES In Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ) – Competitive Biology

BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ) – Competitive Biology

Biology topic – “BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ)”, is important for all competitive exams like SSC CGL, SSC CHSL, RRB NTPC, UPSC and other state civil services exams. In these exams, almost 4-5 questions are coming from Biology. Let’s start the topic:- BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ).

BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ)

  • Study of Bones is called – OSTELOGY (ऑस्टोलोजी)
  • Physician of Bones is called (हड्डियों का डॉक्टर) – Orthopedist.
  • Bones are made up of:
    1. Calcium Phosphate, (Maximum)
    2. Calcium Carbonate,
    3. Calcium Oscine (Protein)
  • There are 206 Bones present in Human Body.

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  • While in Infants (शिशुओं), Bones are more than 300.
  • The bone mass in the human skeleton reaches maximum density around age 21 years.
  • Largest Bone in Human Body —   Femur (Bone of Thigh) जांघ की हड्डी
  • Smallest Bone in Human Body — Stapes (Bone of Ear) स्टेप्स

     (The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear.  The stapes is a stirrup-shaped bone, and the smallest in the human body).


 Knee Bones:knee bones sukrajclasses.

  • Knee Bone is also known as: Patella (पटेल्ला)
  • The two bones in the leg below the knee are:
    1. Tubia              2. Fibula
    1. Tibia: also known as the “Shinbone” or “Shankbone”.
    2. Fibula: Behind and to the outside of the tibia and it connects the knee with the Ankle bones.
  • Pseudo Bone (False Bone/भार्मिक हड्डी) – It is refer to a Nerve (It presents in Elbow)



  • In skull (खोपड़ी) – There are Total =  28 Bones

                     Cranium  =     8 Bones

                     Face         =   14 Bones

                     Ear           =     6   Bones


                    Total         =    28 Bones

  • In Human Neck (गर्दन), there are = 7 Bones and these are called = “Cervical”.
  • All Mammals (सतनी जीव) have 7 Cervical Bones.
  • In Ribs (पसलियों) there are = 24 Bones or 12 Pairs.

(Of all 12 pairs, the first 7 pairs are often labeled as ‘true. These bones are connected to the costal cartilage.  While the 5 other pairs ‘false’ sets. 3 of those connect to non-costal cartilage, and 2 are deemed to be ‘floating, which means they only connect to the spine).

In Back Bones (रीढ़ की हड्डी):

  • An Infant (शिशु) has = 31 Bones.
  • An Adult (वयस्क) has = 26 Bones.
  • Back bone have ring (छल्लेदार) type structure and it is called = Vertebrae.

      The human spinal column is made up of 33 bones.

      Vertebrae:  In the cervical region    =    7

                            In the thoracic region    =  12

                            In the lumbar region      = 

                            In the sacral region         =  5

                             In the coccygeal region =  4


                                                 Total         =     33

BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ)

Bones parts:

         Most of the bones have 4 parts:

  1. The outside part of bone is called the Periosteum. This is a thin but very dense layer that has the nerves and blood vessels which nourish the bone.
  2. Compact bone is next. It is smooth and very hard.
  3. Cancellous bone comes next, and this looks a bit like a sponge but is much stronger.
  4. On the very inside of many bones is the bone marrow. It looks a bit like a jelly and it makes new blood cells for the body.

Bone Marrow:

There are two types of bone marrow- 1) yellow 2) red.

  • Yellow bone marrow is mostly fat cells. Red marrow is important because this is where our body produces red and white blood cells. When we are born, all of our bones have red marrow. By the time  as we get adulthood — about half of our bones have red marrow.

         (In Bone Marrow (spongy tissue), formation of RBC- Red Blood Cells/ लाल रक्त कणिकाएं, takes place).

Bone – Joints:

            Our bones come together and connect at special places called joints., For example: our knees and elbows are joints. Many joints have a large range of movement and are called ball and socket joints. The shoulder and hip are ball and socket joints. Joints have a smooth, durable material called cartilage. Cartilage, together with fluid, allows bones to rub against each other smoothly and not wear.

Important Facts about the Bones in human body:

  • Bone Weight:  About 15% of body weight.
  • The human body has 300 (Approx) bones at birth, but this number decreases to 206 by adulthood.
  • More than half of all the bones in the human body are in the hands and feet.
  • The largest bone in the human body is the femur, also known as the thigh bone.
  • The smallest bone in the human body is stirrup, also known as the stapes (Bone of Human Ear).
  • An adult human skull contains 28 bones, 8 cranial and 14 facial bones.
  • An adult human has 24 rib bones, 12 on the left side and 12 on the right side.
  • An adult human hand contains 27 bones.
  • An adult human foot contains 26 bones.
  • Bones contain a semi-solid tissue called bone marrow.
  • Bone marrow is where platelets, red and white blood cells are produced.
  • Every minute around 120 million red blood cells are created by bone marrow.
  • Joints are locations in the human body where two or more bones are linked together.
  • The largest joint in the human body is the knee.
  • The smallest joint in the human body is the Incudostapedial joint.
  • The most fragile (नाजुक) bones in the human body are toe bones.
  • The funny bone (false bone) isn’t a bone, when you hit your elbow a certain way, you’re triggering the ulnar nerve.
  • Osteoporosis is a common bone disease that is caused by low bone density and bone loss.
  • The scientific study of bones is called Osteology and someone who studies osteology is called an Osteologist.

BONES in Human Body (मानव शरीर में हड्डियाँ)

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